YDS İngilizce Çıkmış Sorular Testi-4

1-4: Answer these questions according to the passage below.

Risk is inherent in all business activity. Start-ups, for example, face the risk of too few customers, and therefore insufficient revenue to cover costs. There is also the risk that a competitor will copy the company’s idea, and perhaps offer a better alternative. When a company has borrowed money from a bank, there is a risk that interest rates will rise, and repayments will become too burdensome to afford. Start-ups that rely on overseas trade are also exposed to exchange-rate risk. Moreover, new businesses in particular may be exposed to the risk of operating in only one market. Whereas large companies often diversify their operations to spread risk, the success of small companies is often linked to the success of one idea (the original genesis for the start-up) or one geographic region, such as the local area. A decline in that market or area can lead to failure. It is essential that new businesses are mindful of market changes, and position themselves to adapt to those changes. At its heart, risk is a strategic issue. Business owners must carefully weigh the operational risk of a start-up, or the risks of a new product or project, against potential profits or losses – in other words, the strategic consequences of action vs. inaction. Risk must be quantified and managed; and it poses a constant strategic challenge. Fortune favours the brave, but with people’s lives and the success of the business at stake, caution cannot simply be thrown to the wind.

1. Which of the following is not mentioned as a risk in business activity?

2. According to the passage, the success of small businesses is often associated with ----.

2. According to the passage, the success of small businesses is often associated with ----.

3. What is the author’s attitude towards risk-taking?

4. Which of the following describes the main purpose of this passage?

5-10: For these questions, choose the most accurate Turkish translation of the sentences in English, and the most accurate English translation of the sentences in Turkish.

5. One of the difficulties of studying African literature is that for much of the history of Africa, the societies were non-literate and thus relied on oral traditions to pass their stories to the coming generations.

6. Being overweight after turning 60 may increase the risk of Alzheimer’s disease, but by losing weight, people may be able to hinder ageing of their brains and reduce the likelihood of memory problems later on.

7. As well as being low in calories, vegetables are a rich source of vitamins and minerals and can help reduce the risk of many health problems.

8. Birinci Dünya Savaşı’ndan sonra Avrupa otomobil endüstrisi yavaş yavaş toparlanmaya başladı ancak nispeten düşük gelirler ve yüksek işletme maliyetleri gerçek anlamda bir seri otomobil üretiminin ortaya çıkmasını engelledi.

9. Önemli gelişmelere rağmen beynin tam olarak nasıl hesap yaptığı hâlâ çözülmemiş bir problemdir, çünkü nöronların bilgiyi nasıl kodladığıyla ilgili pek çok soru henüz cevaplanmamıştır.

10. İki farklı bakteri türü, insan vücudunun belirli bölgelerinde karşılaştıklarında antibiyotiklere karşı gösterdikleri alışılagelmiş tepkilerini bırakarak beklenmedik bir şekilde davranabilirler.